Find a good online DIY source that you trust. I recommend This Old House for detailed and easy-to-understand instructions on common plumbing repairs you can do yourself. Make sure you know where to locate the main water supply and the supply to each plumbing application, which is typically located under a sink or behind the toilet. Lastly, familiarize yourself with local codes and regulations. Some municipalities require that you hire a certified plumber for certain plumbing jobs.
Most recently they sent Mike out to snake a kitchen sink drain for us. Mike got here earlier than quoted and got the work done quickly so I could get out of work on time and pick up my little boy from daycare. I called them back to give a compliment about Mike. I like to let them know when they do a good job. Mike was really a great guy. I have nothing but good things to say about them. When we have an issue we call them. Their techs are personable and always make the residents laugh. They are clean and well prepared. It is a real stand up operation.

The issue is same with plumbing work. Fixing taps and leakages is not easy. You cannot do plumbing work by yourself. This is different that electrician work in this aspect. Plumbing needs skills and equipment. Without them, one cannot fix the issue. If you have a problem with pipes or taps, you need a plumber. You also need him if you need to install new taps or geyser or such devices. But you have to ensure that the plumber that you hire is an expert. Finding such a plumber with skills is not easy in Apache Junction.

Delk Plumbing of Summerville, SC is a residential and commercial plumber serving Ladson, Hanahan, Goose Creek, Moncks Corner, North Charleston, Charleston, West Ashley, Mount Pleasant, Daniel Island, Ridgeville, Knightsville, and Ravenel. Our residential plumbing services include pin hole leaks, slab leaks, faucet repair, tankless water heaters, toilet replacement, drain pipe repair, tub repair, bathroom faucet repair, kitchen faucet repair, garbage disposals, and many other plumbing repairs. We also serve commercial clients with DHEC, new construction, renovations, and much more. As an added service to our customers, we now offer HVAC services. Call us for all of your heating and air conditioning needs. We provide installation for new heating and cooling equipment, as well as service and repair on all major brands.
Rooter service is designed to solve the commonplace problems of slow and clogged drains. Clogs and blockages can affect your plumbing in many ways, depending on the type of clog and where it is located. A clog inside one of your home’s drains will typically only affect the appliance or fixture nearest its location; these clogs are often comprised of organic debris such as food scraps, hair, and soap scum. Alternatively, a larger clog blocking your home’s sewer line may show different symptoms, such as widespread drainage issues in several areas of your home or minor backups in tubs and showers when a toilet is flushed or your washing machine runs. In severe cases, you may experience wastewater backups that flood your home, causing damage and exposing family members to untreated sewage. Sewer clogs can also be due to debris buildup or non-flushable items in the pipes, or may instead be caused by tree roots invading and growing into your sewer line in search of water, forming a living, growing clog that cannot be removed without the help of your professional rooter service.
Becoming a plumber is a two-pronged process that includes practical training and study. Traditionally, a hopeful plumber begins a four- or five-year apprenticeship program to receive technical education and complete the required hours of on-the-job training under a licensed professional. Plumbers who have successfully completed their apprenticeship are known as journeymen.
When you have a plumbing issue that needs professional attention, look no further than Handy. No matter how skilled you might be at home maintenance, some jobs should only ever be tackled by a professional, and plumbing is one of them. When you book local plumbers through the Handy platform, you'll be booking a cheap but reliable plumbing professional who will know just where to look to find the source of the problem and who will have all the right tools and expertise to fix it. You'll never go looking for a "local plumbers near me" again!
I used Flynn's in Dec 2014 right after I purchased a home in Chesterfield and had a "stand still" clogged line to the septic. A young fellow came over, right on time, cleared the septic line, charged a reasonable fee, and we were done. What more can you ask for? I am currently experiencing another issue and will be calling Flynn's again to fix it!
Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.
Using corrosive chemicals to dissolve a clog is like throwing a grenade down a gopher hole. Instead, Wroblewski recommends flushing your drains weekly with a half cup of baking soda and one cup of vinegar. Let it fizz in the drain for ten minutes, then pour in four cups of boiling water. Find out about the plumbing nightmares that will make you cringe.

Shop with confidence from a team you can trust. We are the pioneers of the online plumbing supply industry and have a deep understanding of unique, hard-to-find plumbing parts. We opened our online store in 1995, and we're still going strong today. Born into a world without Google, surviving the dot-com bubble, and flourishing in our 24th year, we continue to offer unrivaled customer service and a vast inventory. Because we don't believe in minimum orders, you have the freedom to order exactly what you need, anytime, anywhere.


Disclaimer: Plumbers Today is a free service that connects users with plumbers in their area. All contractors are independent and are in no way affiliated with Plumbers Today. Plumbers Today can neither endorse nor guarantee the quality of any work performed. It is the responsibility of each user to vet the contractor that he or she hires, and to confirm that the contractor meets all licensing and insurance requirements in that jurisdiction.
Also, realize that some supply stores you may find online or in a directory are wholesale only and will only sell you supplies if you have a resale or contractor's license. Pretty important to know if you have to shut the water off at the main valve for the house for a repair and THEN find out you can't get the replacement part at Home Depot after you've already taken the fixture apart. Shower valves are infamous for this, since the older ones don't have shutoffs at the valve, which is in the wall, so you can't see it until you're in there - and you can't get in there until you've shut off the water at the main.
The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized. PVC pipe for plumbing applications and galvanized steel pipe for instance, are measured in IPS (iron pipe size). Copper tube, CPVC, PeX and other tubing is measured nominally, which is basically an average diameter. These sizing schemes allow for universal adaptation of transitional fittings. For instance, 1/2" PeX tubing is the same size as 1/2" copper tubing. 1/2" PVC on the other hand is not the same size as 1/2" tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them. When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural.[19]

Need a quick fix? After having a plumber come out to your house, they might tell you the part needed to fix your toilet or sink issue is going to take a week. Don’t be too amenable if you can’t wait. There’s no shame in working with another plumber who can get the part and do the job when you need it. If you’re doing the job yourself, be sure you know these tips for completing a plumbing fix like a pro.
The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.[3] The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes[4] and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths.[5] In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall".[6] Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.
Most plumbers wont mess with the septic tank. We deal mostly with components inside the house. Did you have a vent pipe in the yard (often looks like a candy cane made of PVC) before the repair but not after? If all he did was replace the line it shouldn't cause a smell inside the house. All plumbing fixtures inside the house should have properly functioning traps. Those traps would create and maintain a water seal against the sewer gases. You should have at least one vent through the roof to equalize pressures within the drainage system. This prevents positive pressures within the system (caused by fixtures discharging into the lines, ie toilet flush) from pushing gas out through the traps, and negative pressures (the waste in line will pull air behind it like your finger over the end of a straw) from sucking water out of the traps.
A rooter service is a type of plumbing repair – it is any method of drain cleaning or pipe repair. Typically, it is when a plumbing service company uses a range of different tools to perform water pipe repair. It involves running water through your drains, using tools that they snake through your drains to unclog them and sometimes taking parts of the water pipe system apart so that they can take out some of the clogs manually. The original culprit of clogged drains was tree roots – hence the name ROOTer service, but now it is used to address all kinds of stubborn sewer line and drainpipe clogs that affect the function of your plumbing.
Seriously, I've done a lot of plumbing repairs, from installing sinks and fixtures, toilet replacement and repair, caulking and recaulking to replacing a garbage disposal. Probably the most frustrating thing I've encountered was needing a specialty tool for one repair; for me it was a basin wrench. Some hardware stores will loan tools, so it's worth it to find that out ahead of time.
We are your one-stop shop for all your Denver plumbing needs. While other companies might specialize in one or two tasks, we can handle it all. We do everything from backflow prevention to water treatments and many things in between, such as faucet repair and replacement and plumbing remodeling. Whether you have a problem that needs to be fixed or you want preventative maintenance or an upgrade, we can help. We pride ourselves on being the only plumber you’ll ever need. Just let us know what you need done, and our team of certified technicians will get to work.
Not only plumbers, but good electricians are tough to locate. Finding the ideal workmen for your appliances is harder than ever. The Apache Junction is full of people who claim to be experts. However, getting a fix for your appliances by them is never viable. They provide lousy services. They also charge too much money. Paying such high amount is not sensible if services are poor. The customer can be in confusion in such cases. With Apache Junction Electrician at your doorstep, you can drop the confusion. We provide the best job for all types of appliances.
Baker Brothers Plumbing offers both residential and commercial plumbing services including tank and tankless water heater replacement and maintenance; drain and sewer repairs or replacement; drain cleaning, clearing and jetting; pipe lining and pipe replacement; repipe; gas line repair; slab leak detection and slab leak repair; bathroom and kitchen faucet installation; garbage disposal repair and installation; and most general plumbing repairs in most or all of the following Dallas, TX ZIP Codes: 75229, 75230, 75225, 75220, 75209, 75219, 75247, 75212, 75235, 75201, 75207, 75248, 75287, 75252, 75244, 75254, 75240, 75251, 75248-1713, 75214, 75228, 75243, 75238, 75218, 75206, 75231, 75204, 75226, 75246, 75227, 75208, 75217, 75232, 75224, 75211, 75241, 75215, 75233, 75253, 75216, 75223, 75237, 75249, 75203, 75210

Plumbing is one of your home's main infrastructures - yet water can also be your home's nemesis. So count on True Value Hardware Stores to help you tackle any size plumbing job. From basic projects like installing a new faucet or water filter or opening a clogged drain; to a bit more complex like replacing a water heater, toilet or sump pump, we can help.
Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.
The issue is same with plumbing work. Fixing taps and leakages is not easy. You cannot do plumbing work by yourself. This is different that electrician work in this aspect. Plumbing needs skills and equipment. Without them, one cannot fix the issue. If you have a problem with pipes or taps, you need a plumber. You also need him if you need to install new taps or geyser or such devices. But you have to ensure that the plumber that you hire is an expert. Finding such a plumber with skills is not easy in Apache Junction.

Our services are also available for plumbing tasks. Plumber Apache Junction AZ provides the best plumbing services in the Apache Junction. Our team of plumbers has an expertise with all types of devices. Be it taps or showers – Apache Junction Plumber have a fix for all. No one can fix leakages better than our team of workmen. Our plumbers are different than the others in the market. We always work for the benefit of customers. Other plumbers just want to fill their pockets. They point out faults that are not even there. They recommend for replacement of parts even when repair is possible. They do all this to earn extra money. They do not care about the budget of the customer.


We've only been in our home a few months and I noticed that they had a Dean's sticker on the furnace with a service line so I thought I would give them a try...I'm so glad I did! Ray R. came out to our house right away the next morning and he was awesome! He was super friendly and knowledgeable and he was great at talking me through what he was checking and doing. As a first time homeowner I was extremely appreciative of all of the knowledge he was able to pass along about our specific unit and all heating and cooling in general.

^ "II. The Plumbers". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 September 2013. In the early evening of June 17, 1971, Henry Kissinger held forth in the Oval Office, telling his President, and John Ehrlichman and Bob Haldeman, all about Daniel Ellsberg. Kissinger's comments were recorded, of course, on the hidden White House taping system, and four years later, a portion of that tape was listened to by the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, which was then investigating the internal White House police unit known as the Plumbers.
Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[34] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera, however "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently; Legionella pneumophila discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[35] These opportunistic pathogens can grow for example in faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[35]

Plumber Chandler AZ provide the best plumbers in the Chandler. We hire our team after great care. Each of our plumbers goes through tough background checks. We have a zero-tolerance policy on dishonesty. All our plumbers are reliable and honest. They are simple men with their own families to take care of. This renders them safe for homes as well as offices. We only hire plumbers with a significant period of experience. Plumber Chandler AZ take tests as well to ensure that no one fools us. The result is that plumbers with Plumber Chandler are better than the rest. Our team is formidable. Chandler Plumber experts can fix issues and provide services for all customers with ease.
Plumbing is one of your home's main infrastructures - yet water can also be your home's nemesis. So count on True Value Hardware Stores to help you tackle any size plumbing job. From basic projects like installing a new faucet or water filter or opening a clogged drain; to a bit more complex like replacing a water heater, toilet or sump pump, we can help.
I thought that my sump pump had ended its life and needed to be replaced. The contractor I found through Home Adviser came out the following day and arrived reasonably promptly.  The technician tested the pump and it wasn't responding. He then checked the  breaker panel and all seemed well. However he checked to see if power was reaching the outlet, it wasn't so he tripped some breakers and reset them and the power to my pump came on and the pump works so a replacement wasn't necessary. He charged $75.00 which I think was reasonable for a call-out fee and time spent.
If you decide to try this job yourself, be prepared to keep meticulous track of about a dozen tiny parts (put the stopper in the sink so none of them fall down the drain). There are many different faucet designs, so you may not be able to tell what to replace until you've done the disassembly. Whether you do it yourself or hire a plumber, this would be a good time to think about whether you want to upgrade the faucet with a new design.
Elek has always been a pleasant and affordable experience for me. From the first call in to Mary-Beth all the way to the reliably quick tech visit from Scott and first estimate. Every tech I've had come to my house has been personable and knowledgeable, offering more than one option for fixes in most cases. I will be using Elek for the foreseeable future, thanks!read more
There are few things worse than waiting for a local plumber after being given an 8 hour time window, while your sink is spouting water all over the carpet or your toilet is overflowing. Using the Handy platform, you can arrange an exact time for your plumber to arrive, which means you don’t have to take an entire day off of work to sit around and wait for them. The plumbers on the Handy platform have seen it all and they have the ratings and reviews to prove it.  We’ll match the details of your job with a reliable plumber in your area before you know it.
It’s easy to take your plumbing system for granted, but when it goes out, going without water could be the least of your worries. Even minor plumbing issues like leaky faucets and clogged sewer channels can have major consequences if left unattended. Reliable Rooter Service is Greeley, Colorado’s trusted company for plumbing repairs around the house or office.

Got the plumbing service that I needed with SG1 Plumber. Our kitchen drain had been clogged from an incident with my son. The plumber, Lee, got to work immediately and did a really clean job on the pipes. He didn't even charge that much compared to other plumbing services that I tried before. They'll definitely get a call back from me if I ever experience a plumbing incident again.
Galvanized steel potable water supply and distribution pipes are commonly found with nominal pipe sizes from 3⁄8 inch (9.5 mm) to 2 inches (51 mm). It is rarely used today for new construction residential plumbing. Steel pipe has National Pipe Thread (NPT) standard tapered male threads, which connect with female tapered threads on elbows, tees, couplers, valves, and other fittings. Galvanized steel (often known simply as "galv" or "iron" in the plumbing trade) is relatively expensive, and difficult to work with due to weight and requirement of a pipe threader. It remains in common use for repair of existing "galv" systems and to satisfy building code non-combustibility requirements typically found in hotels, apartment buildings and other commercial applications. It is also extremely durable and resistant to mechanical abuse. Black lacquered steel pipe is the most widely used pipe material for fire sprinklers and natural gas.

Mr. Rooter® Plumbing is the go-to plumber for homeowners across the country. Why? Our plumbing contractors provide courteous, friendly, affordable, and effective residential plumbing services. We take our mission to exceed our customers’ expectations seriously! From on-time arrivals to licensed and certified plumbing experts, we make sure homeowners are getting the very best plumbing services. You can have total peace of mind and confidence when you call on us! We stand behind our work and go the extra mile to get the job done quickly so you can get back to enjoying your home.
 CON'T FROM COMMENTS EARLIER.  However,  the  installation took less than 3/4/ hour and was a basic regulator with no other function.  Looking up the price afterwards, invoice did not list type or price, it appears that it would have cost me around $60 for the regulator and another $15 or so for the additional supplies necessary to install it and it was really a rather simple job with easy access.    Given that, it seems that $300 for less that  an hours worth of on site work,  company says it does not include commute time in its prices, is a little high.  While flat rate quotes are nice, they must take into consideration situations where the work load differs depending on the circumstances.  Therefore, unless you are at the upper end of the harder work needed than the average job. it can be argued that my estimated price of $300 for labor was more than a little high.  Maybe I am wrong since I have not used their services for years and  am not knowledgeable of the costs of equipment and professional labor today.  
To work independently, a plumber is required to receive a license. In most states, the prerequisite for earning this license is two to five years of practical experience. There's also an exam to test technical know-how and understanding of plumbing codes. The United Association's website offers extensive information on licensing requirements by state.

Get a minimum of three bids. Estimates for an average-sized job should be within a few hundred dollars. Be suspicious of anything that is substantially lower or double the price of the rest, and watch out for hidden fees, like charges for travel expenses. They could be signs of a home improvement scam. A good plumber will not nickel and dime you like this, and many of us will offer free estimates.
Are you looking to buy a new AC? It is important to make the right choice. ACs come in all sizes and types. You have to choose the one that suits you the best. It has to be a combination of right price and performance. Finding the AC that is suitable for your room can be tricky. It is one of the important things to take care of while getting a new AC. Installing the new AC correctly is equally important. Such a service can only come through a technician that has experience. Only with the right combination of skill and experience can you get the best install.
Hi Ginger, We're sorry you had this experience with a plumber in our network. Have you left the review for the company? We encourage homeowners to share their experiences so others have an honest idea of the company they are hiring. If you would like to speak with a rep regarding your concerns please reach out to [email protected] If you have a review you would like to submit please send it to [email protected] or visit this link: http://www.homeadvisor.com/write-a-review/. -HASupport
Molds and mildew live and enjoy in a hot, humid, and unclean environment. These three are the best descriptions of a bathroom without proper ventilation. You need to install an exhaust fan in your bathroom so that it can remove the humidity and bad odor inside your bathroom. Exhaust fan installation is essential to prevent mold buildup in this part of your house.

Chuck Bell was the epitome of professionalism in every respect. He was courteous and respectful of my home. He explained all that he needed to do to complete the work, and outlined in advance what the cost would be for the project. He performed the work efficiently and with obvious knowledge of what needed to be done. Chuck is an outstanding representative of Elek Plumbing, and it was great getting to know him.read more

B&L Plumbing Service, Inc. offers a variety of residential and commercial plumbing services in the Kansas City metro area. We are a family owned and operated business and have been satisfying our customers since 1998. At B&L Plumbing, we go above and beyond to take care of our customers and are always ready to take care of any problem that you may have with your plumbing systems. We know your time is valuable. That is why when you call, we will arrive when you need us with a skilled service technician and a well stocked truck ready to troubleshoot, and repair your plumbing problem on the spot.


I initially called Charlie's Rooter Service (CRS) due to a sewer line backup. Lulu answered and was very nice. She set up the appointment and Luis arrived on time and was also very friendly. He pulled out the largest root structure (out of my pipe) either of us had ever seen. We had a good laugh. He called it the catch of the day and had me take a picture of him with it.

Howard County Plumbing Service is a family owned and operated plumbing service company headquartered in Eldersburg, Maryland. We are a full service plumbing company with 25 years of experience and provide 24 hour Emergency Service Monday through Friday after 5pm. We limit our emergency service availability as we believe in the importance of quality time spent with our families. Our team is dedicated to providing our customers with prompt, courteous and professional service. Our goal is to build ongoing relationships with our customers by providing top notch service with the utmost respect for our customers and their homes/businesses. We aren't satisfied until our customers are satisfied.

Don’t flush floss, tampons, or even so-called “flushable” wipes. They don’t break down like toilet paper does and can come back to haunt you later. “Toilets are more water-efficient now than they were 20 years ago, so there sometimes isn’t enough volume in the flush to force debris down,” says Marcin Wroblewski, president of ExpressRooter Plumbing in Toronto. “An object will get lodged in the trap and cause blockage when waste builds up days later.”
Another way to avoid a service call from your plumber is to make sure the outside faucets are turned off in the winter and make sure you disconnect the outside hoses. You need to shut the water off from the inside. Then, open the valve on the outside to let the water that’s in there drain out—you switch both of them to the opposite direction so one is always closed and one is always open. We have to fix tons of these in the spring mostly because people leave their outside hoses connected and they freeze up. The repair could cost $100-$200 or more. Another tip would be if you’re going away for any length of time, like on vacation, turn off your water. If on any of those days the temperature drops below freezing, have someone check in on your house. I’ve been called to homes where the family returned from vacation, and there was water flooding out from the front door.
Tree roots, corrosion, and debris buildup can all threaten the healthy function of your home’s drains and sewer lines—that’s why we offer professional rooter service in Vero Beach, FL, to address your home’s plumbing needs quickly and completely. If you think you may be facing a tough clog that needs the attention of a plumber, please visit our website to find out more about our services or to schedule an appointment online. We also encourage you to click through our blog archives to learn more about the factors that can affect your plumbing and how to avoid or address them.

Faucets for the kitchen come in an array of styles, and costs vary as well, from simple single handle models running less than $50 to pull down faucets like those used in restaurant kitchens costing more than $200. One handle or two, separate pullout sprayer or pull down, countertop or wall mount, these also feature a variety of finishes from stainless steel to nickel and bronze.

If you have a major fix in your home, it’s important to shop around for a plumber to do the work. At least three bids will help you determine the range of the project, so you can weigh the pros and cons of price and the reputation of the plumbers. Get references and contact them. Also, a good plumber isn’t likely to nickel and dime you. For the smaller jobs, check out these 11 plumbing tricks.


I had 207 Plumbing come to fix a leak in my ceiling.  It's a terrible, terrible company to do business with.  He came and fixed a broken pipe in the ceiling, and I asked him to check the rest of the pipe to make sure that nothing else was broken, he said everything was OK and charged me $219.00 for 45 minutes and left.  Never cleaned up his mess.  I went to clean up the mess after he left and found there was more damage to the pipe.  I called him to come back, which he did.  He looked at the water coming down from the ceiling, into a light fixture and said he had another job to go to and couldn't come back until next week.  He also wanted to charge me $350.00 to come back.  I told him that was too much and he said he would make an exception and only charge me $219.00.  Now I have major damage done to the ceiling, the light fixture and the floor.  All of this could have been prevented if he had stayed and fixed the problem.  I will NOT hire him again.
Get a minimum of three bids. Estimates for an average-sized job should be within a few hundred dollars. Be suspicious of anything that is substantially lower or double the price of the rest, and watch out for hidden fees, like charges for travel expenses. They could be signs of a home improvement scam. A good plumber will not nickel and dime you like this, and many of us will offer free estimates.
 Kevin was very professional and personable in his interactions with us and his explanations of the cause and possible problems were right on! He had a young woman working with him who is his apprentice and she was a delightful individual as well. Both my wife and I are retired educators, and we were impressed with Kevin's patience and ability to convey what information she needed in order to perform her tasks in a satisfactory way.read more 

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.[1] Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications.[2] The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.[3]
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