The customer service was top notch! David and Christian were very respectful from the moment they arrived at my home. They were very knowledgeable and honest. Neither tried to upsell me on anything I did not need and they were sure to guide me in the right direction on the repairs that I should have done. They kept me informed on how the progress was going through out the whole process and made me feel very glad to have chosen Elek for my plumbing repairs. A++ overall on the whole experience! The only recommendation I have is that Elek should expand to other states (Michigan).read more
When you book an affordable plumber, whether it's to fix a broken boiler or to unclog a drain, you want to know they're skilled enough for the task at hand. Nothing is worse than sending an amateur with a wrench to look at your pipes. Odds are, there will be more damage than when they started. All plumbers on the Handy platform are vetted, verified, and background checked way before they arrive at your home, so you can be sure that they're the right person for the job. 
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters may use many different materials and construction techniques, depending on the type of project. Residential water systems, for example, use copper, steel, and plastic pipe that one or two plumbers can install. Power plant water systems, by contrast, are made of large steel pipes that usually take a crew of pipefitters to install. Some workers install stainless steel pipes on dairy farms and in factories, mainly to prevent contamination.
If you have a leaking faucet in your home, it could be costing you hundreds of dollars a year on your water bills. A faulty tap can also lead to the growth of unhealthy mold and mildew. One of our expert technicians can quickly and efficiently take care of repairing or replacing that leaking faucet. We can also take care of installing or repairing any of the other plumbing fixtures in your home, including sinks toilets and showers.
Need a plumber to add to your network? There is one name in Evansville you can count on for 24/7 emergency help: Bud’s Plumbing & Repair Service! Enjoy fast turnarounds, top notch workmanship, and competitive pricing. Everything we do is transparent so there are never any surprises. Call us today at (812) 618-9638 to discuss your plumbing needs and be on your way to better indoor comfort in no time!
Baker Brothers Plumbing offers both residential and commercial plumbing services including tank and tankless water heater replacement and maintenance; drain and sewer repairs or replacement; drain cleaning, clearing and jetting; pipe lining and pipe replacement; repipe; gas line repair; slab leak detection and slab leak repair; bathroom and kitchen faucet installation; garbage disposal repair and installation; and most general plumbing repairs in most or all of the following Dallas, TX ZIP Codes: 75229, 75230, 75225, 75220, 75209, 75219, 75247, 75212, 75235, 75201, 75207, 75248, 75287, 75252, 75244, 75254, 75240, 75251, 75248-1713, 75214, 75228, 75243, 75238, 75218, 75206, 75231, 75204, 75226, 75246, 75227, 75208, 75217, 75232, 75224, 75211, 75241, 75215, 75233, 75253, 75216, 75223, 75237, 75249, 75203, 75210

For the past 30+ years, BEST Plumbing Service of Cincinnati has served the area by providing the highest quality plumbing repairs and installations throughout the entire area. Our Cincinnati plumbing company, based in Loveland, takes pride in being a family-owned and locally-operated business. Whether your sewer lines, water lines, faucets, drains or toilets need servicing, our team is equipped with the best knowledge and experience to get the issues fixed fast and quick. Our licensed and experienced plumbers are always on standby when duty calls.
Elek has always been a pleasant and affordable experience for me. From the first call in to Mary-Beth all the way to the reliably quick tech visit from Scott and first estimate. Every tech I've had come to my house has been personable and knowledgeable, offering more than one option for fixes in most cases. I will be using Elek for the foreseeable future, thanks!read more
Luke and Seng were wonderful. Water not draining is troubling for any homeowner. Both were very professional and comforting as they assessed and worked to correct my problem. I was alarmed when is was not a quick fix but they made the extra effort to correct my problem so no concrete floor is being wrapped up today. Benjamin Franklin plumbing is on at the top of my list.
Rooter service was invented to solve the simple problem of tree roots breaking into and clogging underground sewer lines. The original rooter machine was built from a washing machine motor and roller skate wheels, which moved a long steel cable through underground pipes to clear away invading tree roots. This device became the design foundation of the modern-day plumber’s snake, which is a hand-cranked or motor-driven cable used to break up or pull up clogging material in a sewer or other drainage pipe. While snakes are still used in many rooter service visits, other tools such as root-killing chemicals and hydro-jetting may also be used alone or in combination to address serious drain clogs that cause poor drain performance or complete sewage backups. Additionally, your rooter service may also include pipe repair in cases where your pipes have been corroded or damaged, leading to leaks as well as clogs and drainage issues.

Specializing in sewer inspection and sewer cleanings, we also offer a variety of plumbing repair services for garbage disposals, faucets, sprinkler systems and sewer channels in Greeley, CO and Greater Loveland and Fort Collins. Small plumbing problems such as clogged sewer systems or deficient faucets are inconvenient now and can lead to bigger problems down the road. Save money in the long run by correcting your plumbing issues today. And to further save you money, Reliable Rooter Service always offers free quotes and inspections, $10 off drain cleaning and $25 off sewer inspections.


Kevin was very professional and personable in his interactions with us and his explanations of the cause and possible problems were right on! He had a young woman working with him who is his apprentice and she was a delightful individual as well. Both my wife and I are retired educators, and we were impressed with Kevin's patience and ability to convey what information she needed in order to perform her tasks in a satisfactory way.read more
Cory was out here and did fantastic work. He was very fast and efficient and was upfront about all pricing. Very high quality work, super knowledgeable and showed us/ explained everything to us before he did it so we had an idea of what was going on. Really friendly guy, 4/5 because he didnt plug the coffee makers back in >:( Just kidding, in all seriousness he gets 5/5 and I would recommend Deans to anyone and everyone.
Instead, you will be guided every step of the way. A friendly representative will greet you at your first phone call and work with you to schedule a convenient appointment time. Our plumbers take the time to listen to your concerns, address all of your questions, and make sure you receive the type of service you expect. This leaves no room for surprises.
 Scott was our tech/plumber this time, and installed a new garbage disposal for us. Scott was knowledgeable, efficient, and friendly. Before the visit, I spoke with Elek's warehouse to select the model Insinkerator I wanted. Most helpful. This is the third time I've used them. Prior to this they installed a new hot water heater on an emergency basis (very pleased with the rescue the day after Thanksgiving), and later to check out and service a sump pump. A very professional and service-oriented organization.read more 

You’ve found the right place for complete commercial and residential plumbing service and repair. With 29 years serving thousands of satisfied customers, Oscar's Plumbing & Rooter Service is proud to provide state-of-the-art plumbing repairs and installation. Whether you have a new home project you’re undertaking or have an emergency repair situation, you can count on us to provide top quality service and workmanship that lasts. We specialize in sewer repairs.

If you have a major fix in your home, it’s important to shop around for a plumber to do the work. At least three bids will help you determine the range of the project, so you can weigh the pros and cons of price and the reputation of the plumbers. Get references and contact them. Also, a good plumber isn’t likely to nickel and dime you. For the smaller jobs, check out these 11 plumbing tricks.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.[16] The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat. They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.
Rooter service was invented to solve the simple problem of tree roots breaking into and clogging underground sewer lines. The original rooter machine was built from a washing machine motor and roller skate wheels, which moved a long steel cable through underground pipes to clear away invading tree roots. This device became the design foundation of the modern-day plumber’s snake, which is a hand-cranked or motor-driven cable used to break up or pull up clogging material in a sewer or other drainage pipe. While snakes are still used in many rooter service visits, other tools such as root-killing chemicals and hydro-jetting may also be used alone or in combination to address serious drain clogs that cause poor drain performance or complete sewage backups. Additionally, your rooter service may also include pipe repair in cases where your pipes have been corroded or damaged, leading to leaks as well as clogs and drainage issues.
Think that by calling for plumbing services you will have to clean up after the work is done? Not when you work with us! At Bud’s Plumbing & Repair Service, our uniformed plumbers arrive at your door with shoe covers and are conscious of the cleanliness of the work area. In fact, once the job is done, you won’t be able to tell we were even there! That’s how clean we leave your property. There is no mess for you to clean up, so you can get back to your normal routine without hassle.
Need plumbing supplies? We've got everything you need to build an efficient system. Find ball valves for commercial and residential plumbing, filters, filter cartridges and fittings. Looking for an electric or gas hot water heater? We have hundreds, along with all the supplies you need to install them. We carry a complete line of bathroom fixtures, PVC and CPVC tubing. Get all of the industrial plumbing parts and supplies with our inventory.
I initially called Charlie's Rooter Service (CRS) due to a sewer line backup. Lulu answered and was very nice. She set up the appointment and Luis arrived on time and was also very friendly. He pulled out the largest root structure (out of my pipe) either of us had ever seen. We had a good laugh. He called it the catch of the day and had me take a picture of him with it.
If you own a home or business, you know that accidents don’t abide by the rules of time. In fact, accidents seem to happen at the worst possible time! If you work with Evans Rooter Service in Evans, CO and surrounding areas, you’ll be covered 24 hours a day, 7 days a week with our emergency plumbing services. Don’t wait until morning to get back to your daily routine. We’ll be there for you any time of day or night to repair your drain clogs.

Lutz Plumbing, Inc. is a 4th generation family-owned business, with roots going back to 1920. Our company was founded by William Lutz, grandfather and great grandfather of current owners Jim Lutz and Amber Lutz Sewell. 2015 was one of our biggest years on record, with unprecedented sales and the growth of our workforce. When you hire the plumbers on our staff, you are guaranteed to work with skilled professionals that take their work and their company seriously.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.[16] The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat. They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.

Periodic maintenance is the single most important activity you can perform to protect the ROI on your plumbing assets, ensure system efficiency and uptime, and maximize the life of your equipment.  With ACCO as your service partner, you benefit from decades of plumbing engineering expertise and industry leading technical know-how.  Please visit our Preventive Maintenance page for more info.


If you own a home and your plumbing toolkit consists of a lone plunger, chances are sooner than later you’ll need to tap into the knowledge or advice from someone versed in common plumbing repairs. Ace can help you in a pinch. While a plunger can be handy in several different scenarios, Ace Hardware has the plumbing tools, plumbing supplies and knowledgeable plumbing advice on hand to face a plumbing problem head on.


After buying our house last year we have had to have a number of plumbers come out to fix things because we have a lot of weird DIY issues with this house and the locations of things dont always make sense (weird previous owner I guess) ...most plumbers charged a bunch to come out and often not fix the issues... just hand me a huge bill to try stuff out. Anyway these guys are great, we had them come out first to help stop a flooding toilet issue that 2 other plumbers could not fix, then when it happened again a week later they came out free of charge to check and fix it again (2nd time worked and killed the clog!)

A rooter service is the best way to combat the multiple commonplace problems of slow and clogged drains that you may experience in your home. A plumber should be contacted when you need this service as the use of a rooter machine is needed to break up the roots in your plumbing and flush them out. It is important that an experienced professional is in control of this machine because it is easy to damage your pipes if it is not used correctly. Rooter service is an important part of plumbing maintenance and you will need to use this service when you have a mysterious clog, a wastewater backup or any other drainage issue.
A leaky faucet can be a relatively easy fix depending on the type of faucet, so get to know the basic types of faucets and how to take them apart. You can look for instructions online; YouTube videos are the most useful. A slow drip usually means that all you have to replace is a washer, but make sure you know which size you need before buying a new one.
As with other construction workers, employment of plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters is sensitive to fluctuations in the economy. On the one hand, workers may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. On the other hand, shortages of workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity.
My plumbing experience was  to have the plumbing  disconnected under the sink so the counter top and new sink could be installed.  I thought the service  of $115 was high, but usually if there is an additional fees, it is usually rolled into the cost of repairs or labor.  This company also charged 3.75 % for putting it on a credit card, which was not mentioned until I received the invoice in the mail after paying on the phone.
I am so happy we went with Charlie's Rooter Service! Louis is extremely personable and knowledgeable! He kept both my husband and I in the loop at all times. I was able to view through his video camera of the roots that were penetrating into or already inside the pipes almost every 4ft-5ft. I was even able to videotape it so I can share it with my husband while he was working at the hospital. In addition Louis noticed these clay pipes were not aligned (probably from earthquakes and the intrusion of roots).... we also only had two original clean outs (one by the kitchen sink and one by the laundry)- we had zero around our bathrooms!
When you’re searching for a dependable Dallas plumber or Dallas plumbing company “near me” which offers licensed and trained plumbers for any plumbing repair or plumbing installation like water heaters, tankless heaters, garbage disposals, drain or sewer lines, water filtration, water softening or other plumbing needs, call 214-892-2225214-892-2225.
As important as it is that you are able to distribute potable water throughout your home in a dependable manner, it would be a much less convenient state of affairs if you were not also able to dispose of that water just as conveniently, not to mention hygienically. That is why we suggest allowing our Master Plumbers to complete any and all drain and sewer services that you may require. From basic cleanings to complex repairs and eventual replacements, we truly do it all. If you have any reason to suspect a problem with your drain and sewer system, give us a call right away.
When you’re searching for a dependable Dallas plumber or Dallas plumbing company “near me” which offers licensed and trained plumbers for any plumbing repair or plumbing installation like water heaters, tankless heaters, garbage disposals, drain or sewer lines, water filtration, water softening or other plumbing needs, call 214-892-2225214-892-2225.
Dean’s Professional Plumbing, Heating & Air is Minneapolis’ premier plumbing and HVAC company, priding itself with over 35 years of combined industry experience. Dean’s plumbing and heating specialists have the knowledge you need to handle all of your HVAC service needs. From installation to repair, Dean’s crew of professional Minneapolis plumbers can do it all!
Wall thickness does not affect pipe or tubing size.[20] 1/2" L copper has the same outer diameter as 1/2" K or M copper. The same applies to pipe schedules. As a result, a slight increase in pressure losses is realized due to a decrease in flowpath as wall thickness is increased. In other words, 1 foot of 1/2" L copper has slightly less volume than 1 foot of 1/2 M copper.[citation needed]
My plumbing experience was  to have the plumbing  disconnected under the sink so the counter top and new sink could be installed.  I thought the service  of $115 was high, but usually if there is an additional fees, it is usually rolled into the cost of repairs or labor.  This company also charged 3.75 % for putting it on a credit card, which was not mentioned until I received the invoice in the mail after paying on the phone.
Before starting any work, we study the issue and perform comprehensive inspections to properly diagnose the problem. Once we have pinpointed the source of the issue, we will discuss your options with you. We try to stick to repairs if possible, and avoid recommending replacements unless your system or unit is extremely outdated. By focusing on repairs instead of replacement, you save money and enjoy an improved plumbing unit for many more years to come.
As with other construction workers, employment of plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters is sensitive to fluctuations in the economy. On the one hand, workers may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. On the other hand, shortages of workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity.
Delk Plumbing of Summerville, SC is a residential and commercial plumber serving Ladson, Hanahan, Goose Creek, Moncks Corner, North Charleston, Charleston, West Ashley, Mount Pleasant, Daniel Island, Ridgeville, Knightsville, and Ravenel. Our residential plumbing services include pin hole leaks, slab leaks, faucet repair, tankless water heaters, toilet replacement, drain pipe repair, tub repair, bathroom faucet repair, kitchen faucet repair, garbage disposals, and many other plumbing repairs. We also serve commercial clients with DHEC, new construction, renovations, and much more. As an added service to our customers, we now offer HVAC services. Call us for all of your heating and air conditioning needs. We provide installation for new heating and cooling equipment, as well as service and repair on all major brands.
If you own a home and your plumbing toolkit consists of a lone plunger, chances are sooner than later you’ll need to tap into the knowledge or advice from someone versed in common plumbing repairs. Ace can help you in a pinch. While a plunger can be handy in several different scenarios, Ace Hardware has the plumbing tools, plumbing supplies and knowledgeable plumbing advice on hand to face a plumbing problem head on.
We are members of St. Gertrude's Parish and we experienced a sewer back up in our basement. I saw BEST Plumbing listed in the bulletin and I decided to give you a try. The appointment was made between 2:00pm and 4:00pm. I received a call from our plumber at approximately 1:30pm that he was in route to our house. BEST Plumbing cleared roots out of our sewer line and operated a camera in the sewer line. They discovered a riser installed improperly, which was broken at the lateral connection. BEST Plumbing made proper repairs, placed sand and backfilled the area. Our plumber was extremely courteous, helpful, and very professional throughout the entire process. We will be BEST Plumbing's biggest fans and appreciate the service. St. Gertrude's Parish
Need a quick fix? After having a plumber come out to your house, they might tell you the part needed to fix your toilet or sink issue is going to take a week. Don’t be too amenable if you can’t wait. There’s no shame in working with another plumber who can get the part and do the job when you need it. If you’re doing the job yourself, be sure you know these tips for completing a plumbing fix like a pro.
Tuesday March 6th my husband went into the basement to feed our cats and found that we had water in our basement and that it was from our hot water heater. This was the night before the big snow storm was supposed to hit us. We have a home warranty, but did not get a person and it would have taken 24 hrs before we heard from their plumber. I googled plumbers in our area and saw all the good things said about Elek. I agree with what was said, my call was answered by a live person who was caring and understood what we were going through. Within a short period Scott called and said he would be coming out to install a new water heater. Scott is very professional! He came in made sure that our rug was protected and went to work. Scott explained what was happening and went over the maintenance agreement which we purchased. All this happened from 5pm until 8:30 when Scott left us with a brand new hot water heater. I know that when the time comes we will be using Elek again. Thank you Elek and Scott - you made a stressfull time easier. I have already told my friends and co-workers this story and recommended your services.read more

Affordable Rooter Service responded very quickly after I turned in my trouble report. They kept me updated about the repair tech’s arrival time. He quickly resolved the plumbing stoppage. They were courteous and professional. Their texts included info about the tech’s arrival time & included the tech’s name & his photo. This was extremely helpful also because there are currently news reports about a rapist attacking women in the North Little Rock/Sherwood area where I live. Very pleased.


 Gilberto from Elek Plumbing was 'the big three': he was on time, he was highly professional, and he really knows his stuff. He told me what he was doing and why every step of the way, and the biggest treat for me was that he encouraged my curiosity and didn't mind all my questions about how things worked. When issues with plumbing arise in the future, I certainly hope Elek sends Gil to answer my call. Both he and the scheduler were very clear about what I should expect in terms of the work and the cost and I thank them both!read more 

Luke and Seng were wonderful. Water not draining is troubling for any homeowner. Both were very professional and comforting as they assessed and worked to correct my problem. I was alarmed when is was not a quick fix but they made the extra effort to correct my problem so no concrete floor is being wrapped up today. Benjamin Franklin plumbing is on at the top of my list.
Proper installation is also important in water devices. Taps, pipes, and faucets need care when you install them. If it is not done correctly, a range of problems can come up. Leakages are often a result of installing through a lousy plumber. With such a low level of expertise, you can never expect the right work. Hiring the right plumbers becomes an important task. But getting such a good plumber does not come easy. The Chandler has many plumbers who are ready to work. The issue is that most of these workmen are novice.
Leaks in your sprinkler system aren’t just annoying. They prevent your system from properly watering your lawn. Our Denver technicians are trained to locate and repair leaks quickly and efficiently. We also fix defective sprinkler heads, clogs, and other issues. In addition, we can winterize your sprinkler system so you won’t have to worry about any problems when the new season starts. With our help, you can have the most beautiful lawn on the block. We are pleased with the role we play in keeping Denver beautiful.

For the highest quality, expertise and excellent customer service you seek for all your plumbing repairs and plumbing installation needs, contact Baker Brothers Plumbing, Air Conditioning & Electrical at 214-892-2225214-892-2225 to schedule an appointment. Our licensed Dallas Plumbing technicians are background checked and drug-screened, ready to provide you with the best possible service in the DFW metroplex.
"lead hung on a string to show the vertical line," early 14c., from Old French *plombe, plomee "sounding lead," and directly from Late Latin *plumba, originally plural of Latin plumbum "lead (the metal), lead ball; pipe; pencil," a word of unknown origin, related to Greek molybdos "lead" (dialectal bolimos) and perhaps from an extinct Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.
Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[34] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera, however "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently; Legionella pneumophila discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[35] These opportunistic pathogens can grow for example in faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[35]
We've only been in our home a few months and I noticed that they had a Dean's sticker on the furnace with a service line so I thought I would give them a try...I'm so glad I did! Ray R. came out to our house right away the next morning and he was awesome! He was super friendly and knowledgeable and he was great at talking me through what he was checking and doing. As a first time homeowner I was extremely appreciative of all of the knowledge he was able to pass along about our specific unit and all heating and cooling in general.
Plumbers in Chandler are aplenty. You can find quite a few people willing to do the job. However, most of these people are not true experts. Many of them join the work only a few months before. Others do not have a proper skill-set. You cannot rely on such plumbers to provide a long-lasting service. When it comes to leakages, you can never take a chance. Many times, walls need to be taken down to repair the leakage. If it comes back again, you have to repeat the ordeal again. But when you hire Chandler Plumber, you skip all these issues at once.
Getting a repair for your AC is not an easy walk. The issue with ACs is that detecting the fault is quite tough. All you can see is the AC is not working. Finding the fault and fixing it is the key to repair. Most technicians are newbie at this. They do not know enough about air conditioners. They try for solutions and do what they know best. They do not know whether their solution will work or not. Due to this, they take a lot of time to do the job. Even then, there is no guarantee that the solution will last. By hiring Chandler AC Repair, you remove this risk. Our services are reliable and long lasting. All this is due to our excellent team of Ac Repair Chandler experts.

Getting a repair for your AC is not an easy walk. The issue with ACs is that detecting the fault is quite tough. All you can see is the AC is not working. Finding the fault and fixing it is the key to repair. Most technicians are newbie at this. They do not know enough about air conditioners. They try for solutions and do what they know best. They do not know whether their solution will work or not. Due to this, they take a lot of time to do the job. Even then, there is no guarantee that the solution will last. By hiring Chandler AC Repair, you remove this risk. Our services are reliable and long lasting. All this is due to our excellent team of Ac Repair Chandler experts.


Gilberto from Elek Plumbing was 'the big three': he was on time, he was highly professional, and he really knows his stuff. He told me what he was doing and why every step of the way, and the biggest treat for me was that he encouraged my curiosity and didn't mind all my questions about how things worked. When issues with plumbing arise in the future, I certainly hope Elek sends Gil to answer my call. Both he and the scheduler were very clear about what I should expect in terms of the work and the cost and I thank them both!read more
Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.
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