^ Jump up to: a b Joseph O. Falkinham III; Elizabeth D. Hilborn; Matthew J. Arduino; Amy Pruden; Marc A. Edwards (August 2015). "Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premises Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Environ Health Perspectives;. 123 (8). doi:10.1289/ehp.1408692. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
Whether you're remodeling your bathroom or just updating old fixtures, replacing a toilet can be a big job if you've never done it before. If you aren't feeling confident about completing a toilet installation yourself, or if you uncover any bathroom plumbing problems during your remodel, Roto-Rooter plumbers are available to help you out. A licensed, experienced Roto-Rooter plumber can expedite replacing the toilet, address any other bathroom repairs, and ensure that the job is done right.

If you are looking for an honest plumbing company, this is the place. Easy to schedule, and they use excellent parts. We have tried three other area companies over the years, and all left us feeling ripped off. I had to actually block one of the other companies from calling every month for 'specials'. The work ELEK has done for us is perfect. This is a really nice group of service techs, they don't try to sell you things you don't need. the home inspection is worth the money.read more
Gilberto from Elek Plumbing was 'the big three': he was on time, he was highly professional, and he really knows his stuff. He told me what he was doing and why every step of the way, and the biggest treat for me was that he encouraged my curiosity and didn't mind all my questions about how things worked. When issues with plumbing arise in the future, I certainly hope Elek sends Gil to answer my call. Both he and the scheduler were very clear about what I should expect in terms of the work and the cost and I thank them both!read more
The next day, I had an unrelated incident with a sprinkler valve inlet pipe rupturing, due to corrosion (galvanized pipe. Since this situation caused me to lose water service to the house, Charlie sent someone over that day to do an emergency cap off. It was then explained what could be done to provide a permanent fix (basically replacing the old galvanized pipe and creating a new sprinkler valve manifold). A quote was given and the full repair was scheduled for the following day. All is good now, and the job came out $120 below the estimate.

Need a quick fix? After having a plumber come out to your house, they might tell you the part needed to fix your toilet or sink issue is going to take a week. Don’t be too amenable if you can’t wait. There’s no shame in working with another plumber who can get the part and do the job when you need it. If you’re doing the job yourself, be sure you know these tips for completing a plumbing fix like a pro.

Need a plumber to add to your network? There is one name in Evansville you can count on for 24/7 emergency help: Bud’s Plumbing & Repair Service! Enjoy fast turnarounds, top notch workmanship, and competitive pricing. Everything we do is transparent so there are never any surprises. Call us today at (812) 618-9638 to discuss your plumbing needs and be on your way to better indoor comfort in no time!

For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape. (Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.) This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.[13]
Chandler Electrician provide installation services for all types of devices. With our service, you need not go anywhere else. We can provide you with any type of electric appliance that you need. Just tell us, and consider the job done for you. We do not use cheap or poor quality parts. All the parts that Electrician Chandler AZ use are from the best makers. The devices that we buy are directly from the companies. There is no middleman involved. This ensures that our customers get the best appliances. When you choose Chandler Electrician, you get the assurance of getting what you are promised.
Rooter service was invented to solve the simple problem of tree roots breaking into and clogging underground sewer lines. The original rooter machine was built from a washing machine motor and roller skate wheels, which moved a long steel cable through underground pipes to clear away invading tree roots. This device became the design foundation of the modern-day plumber’s snake, which is a hand-cranked or motor-driven cable used to break up or pull up clogging material in a sewer or other drainage pipe. While snakes are still used in many rooter service visits, other tools such as root-killing chemicals and hydro-jetting may also be used alone or in combination to address serious drain clogs that cause poor drain performance or complete sewage backups. Additionally, your rooter service may also include pipe repair in cases where your pipes have been corroded or damaged, leading to leaks as well as clogs and drainage issues.
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s. Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")[21] out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.[21]
Hundreds of people trust our services. Over the last years, Plumber Chandler AZ experts have provided services to over 1000 customers. All of these customers were happy with our services. This is because of the quality that we provide with our service. Chandler Plumber have an approach that suits the customer the best. We never opt for a step that could cause discomfort to the customer. This includes buying the right spares and equipment. We get all our parts from the original manufacturers. Other technicians go for a duplicate copy that saves them money. But it is not right for the customer. Plumber Chandler AZ chooses what is right for the customer.

During the summer season, you also need regular performance of your AC. While it works on electricity, an electrician cannot fix it. Services of AC are given only by an expert AC repairer such as Ac Repair Apache Junction AZ. Good AC workmen are scarce in this Apache Junction. You can try getting a good repairer and you will get to know it. While repairers are plenty, none offers reliable work. But in the case of AC you need services that you can count on. During the peak summer months, you cannot afford even one day without AC. It is simply unbearable. Finding good technicians is therefore a cumbersome job.

David responded to our call within minutes. We had a plumbing emergency and he came to us as soon as he finished a job he was on, which was about a few hours. David and his apprentice Cameron were respectful and pleasant to do business with. David explained everything to us and gave us a look at the camera as it snaked through our pipes. We will definitely call this company if need service again.read more


As first time homeowners to a 1950s home, we began to experience issues with our water drains (lucky us). We had bubbles of water coming out of our toilets after literally two minutes of taking a shower... if we continued to shower, it would back up and our tub would flood up with dirty water!  We tolerated this for a good two months and decided we really needed to get this fixed because the smell from the back up was becoming intolerable!
Need a plumber? Tap us! We repair clogged drains, busted pipes and any other broken plumbing fixtures. Apollo Drain & Rooter Services takes care of more than basic plumbing jobs. We also specialize in excavations, large-scale projects and trenchless-pipe replacement. If you need a plumbing company for your Portland, Oregon area home or business, we can help with your drain repair.

If there’s a plumbing problem in your home, Abacus Plumbing will fix it. Abacus plumbers are background-checked, highly trained, and state licensed; therefore, you’ll be getting a quality technician to service your home’s plumbing network. Abacus plumbers have years of experience repairing residential plumbing systems; there isn’t an issue they have not tackled, including:


Last year was a tough year as my son passed away. Two weeks later my water heater began leaking ruining the kitchen floor and bedroom closet. If that wasn't bad enough, our AC stopped working at the same time. Mr. Plumber was at my house until after midnight on a Sunday night to make sure we had hot water. Oh yes, Williams was on site and repaired my AC. It truly was a fragile time and the professionalism along with the compassion from both Mr. Plumber and Williams Comfort Air employees has created a life long client to my plumbing and HVAC needs.
I can't say enough good things about Elek Plumbing and the job David Marshall did. We had a flood in our basement due to a clogged out-take pipe. We called Elek because it was a Sunday and they offered emergency service. David showed up quickly and got to work immediately. Not only did he do a fantastic job, but he was friendly and kind as well. Elek's prices were extremely reasonable considering it was an emergency call on a Sunday. I HIGHLY recommend Elek.. ask for David if you can! He's the best!read more
When my wife and I (Pat Grogan) started Pat The Plumber in 2005, we saw a need for high-quality plumbing services in Topeka with a focus on customer satisfaction. Since then, we have grown our loyal customer base and now provide full plumbing, heating and air conditioning services and changed our company name to reflect the full range of services offered. We are a family-owned business and take extraordinary pride in the quality of our workmanship and customer satisfaction. Call us today for all your home service needs!

The thicknesses of the water pipe and tube walls can vary. Pipe wall thickness is denoted by various schedules or for large bore polyethylene pipe in the UK by the Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR), defined as the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness. Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases. The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness. Copper tubing is available in four wall thicknesses: type DWV (thinnest wall; only allowed as drain pipe per UPC), type 'M' (thin; typically only allowed as drain pipe by IPC code), type 'L' (thicker, standard duty for water lines and water service), and type 'K' (thickest, typically used underground between the main and the meter). Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost. Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances.


Disclaimer: Plumbers Today is a free service that connects users with plumbers in their area. All contractors are independent and are in no way affiliated with Plumbers Today. Plumbers Today can neither endorse nor guarantee the quality of any work performed. It is the responsibility of each user to vet the contractor that he or she hires, and to confirm that the contractor meets all licensing and insurance requirements in that jurisdiction.

Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people.[6] Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.[7] The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.[8] The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes[9] and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.[10]
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